Dr. Susmit Kumar, Ph.D.

 

Rs 595, 461 pages, 778 Endnotes, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 2021.

Please click at the link to buy it at Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd., Flipkart. Also available at local bookstores.

 

Due to almost six decades of near continuous rule by and massive glorification of the Nehru-Gandhi dynasty, “court” historians of India have corrupted the country’s history. We had a similar example in Bihar state. During the fifteen-year rule of Laloo Yadav (and his wife) in Bihar, they introduced chapters in school texts, comparing Laloo Yadav to Lord Krishna and the messiah of social justice (“Paean is mightier,” India Today, Sanjay Kumar Jha, July 12, 2004).

 

New and Shocking Revelations in the book:

 

1.     By bringing large numbers of “radical mullahs” of Khilafat Movement, Gandhi captured Congress Party against the wishes of key Hindu leaders, then secular MA Jinnah and Ms. Annie Besant. For an example, out of 161 delegates from Hindu majority region Madras, who voted for Gandhi’s Non-Cooperation Resolution, 125 were Muslims.

2.     Then in 1921 Gandhi collected 1 crore rupee by the bogus claim of bringing "Swaraj" (self-government) in a year.

3.     Thereafter he changed the constitution of the Congress party and became its dictator, effectively becoming the ‘Sonia Gandhi’ of the time. He used to routinely nominate president and the entire Congress Working Committee.

4.     Gandhi brought these “radical mullahs” into mainstream politics which later on led to the partition of country. It is explained in book. Between 1900 and 1922, only 16 communal riots took place, but between 1923 and 1926 there were 72 riots, i.e., not even once in a year till 1922, but 24 a year after Gandhi’s embrace of the Khilafat movement.

5.     During Gandhi’s lifetime, there were elections only twice for Congress president and both the times his candidates lost. In 1939, he manipulated with his puppets to throw the winner Subhas Chandra Bose out of the party. In 1946, he asked the winner Sardar Patel to withdraw in favor of his candidate, Nehru, who had obtained zero vote; the 1946 Congress president was to become the first Prime Minister of Independent India.

6.     After capturing Congress in 1920, Gandhi always hushed down talk of any independence movement, except in 1942.

7.     Even at the onset of World War II in 1939, Gandhi did not opt for any independence movement, On May 20, 1940, Jawaharlal Nehru made an astounding statement in which he said, "Launching a civil disobedience campaign at a time when Britain is engaged in a life and death struggle would be an act derogatory to India's honour." Similarly, Gandhi said, "We do not seek our independence out of Britain's ruin. That is not the way of non-violence." (Bose, Subhas Chandra, The Indian Struggle, Part II 1935-42, Thacker, Spink & Co, Calcutta, 1948 available at www.subhaschandrabose.org Indian Struggle, Part II pp 25-6)

8.     In mid-1942, Gandhi opted for Quit India Movement only because he thought that Japan and Germany would win World War II. At that time Hitler's Nazi Germany had captured nearly entire Europe and encircled Leningrad and Stalingrad as well as was winning in North Africa. Apart from this, Japan had captured nearly entire East Asia and was knocking at the door of India (with the Indian National Army, INA) through Burma border. Gandhi's original 1942 Quit India Resolution was completely pro-Japanese Empire which was later on revised by Nehru (as per Gandhi's hand written papers, seized by British Raj police in a raid) – the actual British intelligence papers are at British Govt website whose links are written below – screenshots are at bottom. Gandhi was afraid that if the INA, supported by Japan, would liberate India, then his name might be in a footnote in the history book.

9.     As per British Govt declassified papers, Subhas Chandra Bose and his Indian National Army were disaster at battlefield but once they surrendered at the end of World War II, they forced Britain to leave India within just four months by creating a threat of massive Indian Army mutiny by poisoning the mind of “native Indians” among the (British) Indian Army [before whom they surrendered in East Asia], once they came to know how INA fought at Burma-Imphal border and also about fully functioning Azad Hind Government of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose (Oct 1943-Aug 1945) which had its own bank and currency also.

10.     Gandhi and Congress Party usurped/stole from Subhas Chandra Bose the credits for the independence of India. The "court" historians of Nehru-Gandhi family have wiped out the name of "real hero" Subhas Chandra Bose (and the INA) of India's Independence.

 

Please read the back cover - it will re-write history of freedom struggle.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Outline of Structures in the 1923 Combined Congress-Khilafat Cocanada Annual Meeting in Gandhi Nagar – Shows Khilafat Pandal and Khilafat Kitchen also (Page 209 in Dr. Kumar's 2021 Gandhi book)

 

 

 Khilafat Pandal which was part of the 1923 Congress Cocanada structures in Gandhi Nagar (Page 210 in Dr. Kumar's 2021 Gandhi book)

 

 

 1923 Indian National Congress President, a Khilafat leader (Page 211 in Dr. Kumar's 2021 Gandhi book). 

 

 In his presidential address at the 1923 Annual Congress Meeting at Cocanada, Maulana Muhammad Ali, one of the Ali-brothers of the Khilafat movement, attacked the western concept of nationalism as the root cause of imperialism and put forward a new content for Indian nationalism as a ‘Federation of Religions’ whereby India could be described not as ‘United States of India’ but ‘United Faiths of India’. He suggested that the country may be divided in different reserved areas where each religion should have monopoly of proselytization; he asked the Hindus either to absorb the Depressed Classes [i.e., Scheduled Classes] immediately or to allow the Muslims to convert them to Islam (Karandikar, M. A., Islam In India’s Transition to Modernity, Greenwood Publishing Corporation, Westport, Connecticut, US, 1969, pp 175-6).

 

Six years after the end of the Congress-Khilafat campaign, in April 1930, the same Maulana Muhammad Ali organized a mammoth Muslim Conference in Bombay where they condemned the Congress’ Civil Disobedience Movement. In his speech, Muhammad Ali said (Karandikar, p 193)

The satyagraha movement [i.e., 1930 Civil Disobedience Movement] was designed to bring the seventy millions of Indian Mussalmans under the domination of the Hindus.

 

 

 

Both Gandhi’s famous Charka and Muslim flag can be seen in the photo taken of a Muslim procession during 1920-24 Combined Congress-Khilafat Non-Cooperation Movement (Page 212 in Dr. Kumar's 2021 Gandhi book)

 

 

Gandhi's original 1942 Quit India Resolution was completely pro-Japanese Empire which was revised by Nehru (as per Gandhi's hand written papers, seized by British Raj police in a raid)

 

None of Gandhi’s movement, except the 1942 Quit India Movement, was independence from Britain. At the onset of World War II, Gandhi and Congress party did not start any movement against the British Raj. On May 20, 1940, Jawaharlal Nehru made an astounding statement in which he said, "Launching a civil disobedience campaign at a time when Britain is engaged in a life and death struggle would be an act derogatory to India's honour." Similarly, Gandhi said, "We do not seek our independence out of Britain's ruin. That is not the way of non-violence." (Bose, Subhas Chandra, The Indian Struggle, Part II 1935-42, Thacker, Spink & Co, Calcutta, 1948 (at www.subhaschandrabose.org Indian Struggle, Part II pp 25-6).

 

By launching the 1942 Quit India movement Gandhi intended somehow to placate the Japanese Empire, not to generate awareness for independence from Britain. He launched the 1942 Quit India Movement only because he was afraid that the Indian National Army (INA), created and supported by the Japanese army (which had already won Burma at that time), would liberate India from British rule. As per British intelligence report Gandhi’s feeling during mid-1942 was that Germany and Japan would win World War II, which would have made his name a footnote in India’s history as till then he had always hushed down any talk of independence within his Congress party. In fact, his draft of the 1942 Quit India Movement favored Japan.

 

Below is the first page of the (previously secret) declassified document, created by the Secretary of State for India for the War Cabinet on June 16, 1942. The entire document is available at this British National Archive website whose link is written below:

 

 

 

 Part of declassified document, created by the Secretary of State for India for the War Cabinet on June 16, 1942 (Source: British National Archive - http://filestore.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pdfs/small/cab-66-25-wp-42-255-35.pdf)-  [Page 257 in Dr. Kumar's 2021 Gandhi book]

The opening paragraph is – “As I mentioned to the War Cabinet on 15th June 1942 (War Cabinet Conclusions 74(42) Minute 3) there are increasing indications that Gandhi is abandoning his previously declared policy of refraining from embarrassing Government and is planning to lead Congress into some widespread movement with the aim of compelling the British to withdraw from India. I now circulate for information an extract from the Viceroy’s telegram of 7th June and a copy of his telegram of 11th June (already circulated) together with a copy of the published Congress War Resolution of May 1st compared with the original draft (now established to be the work of Gandhi himself) and a selection of recent significant statements by Gandhi.”

 

If you want independence from your colonial ruler, you must at least “embarrass” them. If you are not embarrassing them, then it shows that there is some mutual understanding between you two.

 

As per the (previously secret) declassified document, created by the Secretary of State for India for War Cabinet on June 27, 1942, the whole thought and background of Gandhi's draft was one of favouring Japan. Gandhi’s feeling was that Japan and Germany would win World War II (please see the screenshot below)

 

 

 

 Part of declassified document, created by the Secretary of State for India for the War Cabinet on June 27, 1942 (Source: British National Archive - http://filestore.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pdfs/small/cab-66-26-wp-42-271-1.pdf) - [Page 258 in Dr. Kumar's 2021 Gandhi book]

 

Let us see why Gandhi changed his mind and wanted complete independence from Britain in June 1942. In mid-1942, Nazi Germany was in control of entire Europe and was winning in North Africa and driving towards Stalingrad in Soviet Union. Elsewhere, Japan had taken over Burma and were knocking at the door of India. Japan had already created the Indian National Army (INA) in 1942 under Mohan Singh, by Indian POWs of the British-Indian Army captured by Japan in the Malayan campaign and in Singapore. INA aim was to secure the independence of India by driving away the British.

 

In course of a police raid on the AICC office, notes of the discussion in the [Congress] Working Committee before the AICC meeting were seized. These revealed that Gandhi had submitted his draft of the resolution insisting that India’s conflict with Britain was eternal, but that she had no quarrel with Japan. ‘The Committee,’ ran one sentence, ‘desire to assure the Japanese Government and people that India bears no enmity either towards Japan or towards any other nations.’ ‘If India were freed,’ ran another sentence,’ ‘her first step would probably be to negotiate with Japan (Copland, Ian, India 1885-1947: The Unmaking of an Empire, Longman, UK, 2001, p 240; The Times, April 30, 1942). Nehru, it appeared, had protested that the whole tenor of Gandhi’s draft was in favor of Japan and revealed a belief that the Axis Powers would win the war. The final draft was thus a compromise. In fact, the division in the ‘high command’ between the pacifists and the non-pacifists had been healed. Nehru had surrendered. Up to this point he had consistently preached violent resistance to the Japanese: he had spoken to that effect when Sir Stafford Cripps was at Delhi and even later. Now he had subscribed to ‘non-violent non-co-operation’ as the only method of defense against invasion (Copland, Ian, India 1885-1947: The Unmaking of an Empire, Longman, UK, 2001, p289).

Subhas Chandra Bose, not Gandhi and Congress Party, gave independence to India

 

Bose and his Indian National Army were disaster at battlefield but once they surrendered at the end of World War II, they forced Britain to leave India within just four months by creating a threat of massive Indian Army mutiny by poisoning the mind of “native Indians” among the (British) Indian Army [before whom they surrendered in East Asia], once they came to know how INA fought at Burma-Imphal border and also about fully functioning Azad Hind Government of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose (Oct 1943-Aug 1945) which had its own bank and currency also. During the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny, there were massacres of Europeans at several places. Hence Britain was afraid of similar massacres of Europeans as there were more than 135,000 Europeans in India in mid-1940s.

 

The following 1976 book has declassified papers of British Government and (British) Indian Government.

 

 

 

 

 

DO YOU THINK THAT GANDHI’s NON-VIOLENCE WOULD HAVE CREATED THE MUTINY THREAT IN INDIAN ARMY AS DESCRIBED BELOW?

 

The following is the part of the Chief of Staff Committee Cabinet Paper on November 24, 1945 about the effect of political situation on the Armed Forces (Transfer of Power [above book], pp 582-3):

If the Indian Forces as a whole cease to be reliable, the British Armed Forces now available are not likely to be able to control the internal situation or to protect essential communications, nor would any piecemeal reinforcement of these forces be of much avail. To regain control of the situation and to restore essential communications within the country, nothing short of an organized campaign for the reconquest of India is likely to suffice. It is not possible now to compute the air and land forces required for such a campaign, but they would inevitably be very large as, if the Indian Armed Forces are not prepared to support Government, they will almost inevitably actively oppose it. Further, such active opposition is not likely to be confined to India alone. Disaffection will inevitably spread to Indian troops now being employed by His Majesty’s Government in overseas theatres such as Burma, Malaya, Java and the Middle East with serious repercussions on the attitude of the peoples of those countries. Afghanistan also may well throw in her lot with the Frontier tribes and the Mussalmans of North Western India.

The following December 22, 1945 letter from General Auchinleck, Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army, to Chiefs of Staff shows the reason why the Britain suddenly decided to give independence to India (Transfer of Power [above book], p 676):

 

If disturbances have started and Indian Armed Forces generally or in part have proved unreliable or actively hostile, situation is completely different. In this case British formations would be required to land at whatever port could be kept open and be prepared to fight their way inland to restore, protect and operate railway communications. They would, therefore, have to be accompanied by necessary technical units including railway operating units. Number and phasing of arrival of these formations would have to depend upon the situation at this time and availability and condition of ports. In worst case with Indian Armed Forces generally actively hostile British formations might have to fight their way ashore as well as inland. No firm planning on such indeterminate data is practicable and most you can do is to hold in readiness such formations and technical units together with necessary air support as would be made available to meet whatever situation arises. No deception plan is required in this case.

 

By the end of December 1945, Britain had decided to grant independence to India. As per a letter dated January 17, 1946 from the Secretary of State for India Lord Pethick-Lawrence to British Prime Minister Attlee, British Government had already made up its mind to send a Cabinet Mission, [which eventually came to India in March 1946] consisting of three Cabinet members, to discuss the transfer of powers from the British government to the Indian political leaders (Transfer of Power [above book], pp 809-10). Therefore, British Government had decided to give independence to India even before the 1946 Naval Mutiny which took place in February 1946.

 

It was Clement Atlee, British prime minister at the time of granting independence to India, who said that Gandhi’s non-violence movement had next to zero effect on the British. Chief Justice P.B. Chakrabarty of the Kolkata High Court, who served as acting governor of West Bengal, disclosed the following in a letter addressed to the publisher of Ramesh Chandra Majumdar’s book A History of Bengal (Borra, Ranjan, Subhas Chandra Bose, The Indian National Army, and The War of India’s Liberation, Journal of Historical Review, Vol. 20 (2001), No. 1, reference 46):

 

You have fulfilled a noble task by persuading Dr. Majumdar to write this history of Bengal and publishing it … In the preface of the book Dr. Majumdar has written that he could not accept the thesis that Indian independence was brought about solely, or predominantly by the non-violent civil disobedience movement of Gandhi. When I was the acting Governor, Lord Atlee, who had given us independence by withdrawing the British rule from India, spent two days in the Governor’s palace at Calcutta during his tour of India. At that time I had a prolonged discussion with him regarding the real factors that had led the British to quit India. My direct question to him was that since Gandhi’s “Quit India” movement had tapered off quite some time ago and in 1947 no such new compelling situation had arisen that would necessitate a hasty British departure, why did they have to leave? In his reply Atlee cited several reasons, the principal among them being the erosion of loyalty to the British Crown among the Indian army and navy personnel as a result of the military activities of Netaji [Subhash Chandra Bose].Toward the end of our discussion I asked Atlee what was the extent of Gandhi’s influence upon the British decision to quit India. Hearing this question, Atlee's lips became twisted in a sarcastic smile as he slowly chewed out the word, “m-i-n-i-m-a-l!”.

 

Gandhi and Congress Party usurped/stole from Subhas Chandra Bose the credits for the independence of India. The "court" historians of Nehru-Gandhi family have wiped out the name of "real hero" Subhas Chandra Bose (and his Indian National Army) of India's Independence.

 

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